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Tamaddun means civilization, culture or living together. As an example, bazaar-e-tamaddun means a marketplace of culture.
Tamaddun-e-mashriq means Eastern civilization (also refer to https://urduwallahs.wordpress.com/2013/12/07/north-south-east-west/)

Here is a beautiful couplet by Kaifi Azmi (written in the context of India’s independence and partition):

kaifi-azmi-arthAb Tamaddun Ki Ho Ye Jeet Ke Haar
Mera Maazi Hai Abhi Tak Mere Kaandhe Pe Sawaar
Padta Rahta Hai Mere Maazi Ka Saaya Mujh Par
Daur-E-Khoon-Khwaari Se Guzra Hoon, Chhupaaoon Kyunkar
Daant Sab Khoon Mein Doobe Nazar Aate Hain Mujhe

Mal Liyaa Maathe Pe Tehzeeb Ka Ghaala Lekin
Barbariyat Ka Hai Jo Daagh, Wo Chhoota Hi Nahin
Gaaon Aabaad Kiye, Shehr Basaaye Hum Ne
Rishta Jangal Se Jo Apna Thha, Wo Toota Hi Nahin

Now, whether civilization is victorious or defeated
My past (history) still looks over my shoulder (doesn’t leave me)

The shadow of my past keeps falling on me
I have been through a time of blood and turmoil, why should I hide it
My teeth appear to be soaked in blood

I have worn the sign of respect on my forehead, but
The stains of barbarianism doesn’t go away
Village have been populated, cities have been set up
But the relation with the jungle, that doesn’t go away

Tamaddun Majlish is an Islamic cultural organization that was established in Dhaka immediately after the partition of India on September 1, 1947, by Principal Abul Kashem, a professor in the physics department of Dhaka University. At first it was very active, playing a vital role at the start of the Bengali Language Movement. The members of the organization were strongly influenced by the mentality of the East Pakistan Renaissance Society. After the partition, they realized that Pakistan was no longer governed with the idealism that had been promised. This led most of the members of the Tamuddun Majlish to drift away from the Muslim League.