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The greatest Urdu Satirist of Mughal India, Mirza Mohammad Rafi Sauda was born in 1713 AD to Mirza Muḥammad Shafi, an aristocrat Afghan who had migrated to India for trade. Along with Mazhar, Mir and Dard, Sauda is considered as one of the four pillars of classical Urdu poetry in Mughal India. According to some, his nom de plume ‘Sauda’ denoted his father’s profession of being a merchant (saudaagar). However, the renowned Urdu scholar, Maulana Mohammad Hussain Azad, in his magnum opus, Aab-e-Hayaat (1880), has rubbished this claim and has maintained that :



“The truth is that the poets of Asia, in every country, live and breathe through love; and sauda [=madness] and dīvānagī [=madness] are born together with love. Thus madness too is a cause of pride to lovers. So with regard to this he chose ‘Saudā’ as his pen-name, and thanks to saudāgarī [=merchandising] the verbal device of punning came as a ‘special free offer’ into his poetry”

Sauda originally wrote in Persian. It was on the insistence of Khan-i-Arzoo, for who he had great regard, that he started writing in Urdu. 

Given below is a couplet written by Sauda :

Marta hoon main is dukh se, yaad aati hain vo baatein

Kya din vo mubarak thay, kya khoob thii’n vo raatein

 ‘Sauda’ ko agar poochho, ahwaal hai ye uska

do chaar ghadi rona, do chaar ghadi baatein


I die of this sorrow, remember those talks

What lucky days were those, what lovely were those nights

If you ask ‘Sauda’, this is his attribute

A moment or two crying, a moment or two talking

You can read more about Sauda on this link: http://besabab.wordpress.com/dilli-jo-ek-sheher-tha/sauda/